Let me present to you this comprehensive list of non-lethal self-defense weapons. One of the most significant benefits of these self-defense weapons is that most are easy to use and don't require extensive training to use. Unlike guns and knives, these self-defense tools are non-lethal, therefore decreasing the possibility of the loss of life that can be associated with the use of such weapons.
In this article, I will cover the following:
Most of these self-defense weapons are concealable - you can easily carry a kubotan on a keychain, a stun gun in your purse, or a tactical pen in your shirt pocket. No matter who you are, I believe you should definitely own a personal self-defense tool because things can quickly escalate in a matter of seconds. That being said, it's not only the weapon that makes you effective; it's your skills that make you effective with the weapon.
The self-defense weapons and tools in this list are classified by their type for easy reference and understanding.
This way, it enables you to have a clearer mental picture of its intended usage but also of its distance towards an attacker. Read through this exhaustive list, learn about the benefits and drawbacks of each weapon or tool, and make an informed choice before buying.
Long-range self-defense weapons are tools that can incapacitate an aggressor from a distance, therefore minimizing proximity to danger. That being said, don't think that long-range self-defense tools are the obvious choice, it's not necessarily the case. Long-range weapons work well when you hit your target with it, but if you miss, your opponent will most probably close the distance, disarm you and attack you from the inside.
The taser is a form of electroshock weapon that is fired from a distance. You can use a Taser up to 30 feet, so you don't have to be close to your opponent. A taser fires spear-shaped probes that are connected to wires. When you fire, the probes penetrate your target's clothing and skin, releasing an electrical current to your aggressor that will, in most cases, drop him to the floor in no time, ensuring your escape.
When they hit, they'll do the job, but you only have one to four shots to fire (depending on the model) before resetting the taser. In a real-life situation, your attacker won't always be in the perfect position for you to fire at. If you miss or if it doesn't work like it's intended, you'll have to deal with a close-quarter aggression.
This powerful, Star Trek-like self-defense weapon is compact and small enough to fit comfortably inside a pocket, a purse, or in your car's dashboard storage box. Unlike pepper spray, a good taser can be expensive.
One of the great benefits tasers have over other long-range non-lethal self-defense tools like pepper spray is that you won't get back spray - it will work even if it's windy or if there is a fan in a room.
This taser on Amazon is shaped like an actual gun and can fire up to four separate shots up 23 feet.
Pepper spray is a cheap, effective, and easy-to-use self-defense weapon - and it works. It's a great non-lethal self-defense tool. It's designed to burn the flesh chemically it comes into contact with. When used on the face or genitals (exposed) of a male attacker, they will most likely drop them to their knees.
A can of pepper spray can give you the time you need to get rid of your attacker and run away. As mentioned before, though, the spray has to come in contact with your assailant for the pepper spray to be effective, which is not something always possible during an assault.
Most pepper sprays have a spray range of about 10 ft and are totally non-lethal, which protects you from possible legal and emotional/psychological troubles.
You also have pepper gel that is the newest take on pepper sprays. It contains the same active ingredient, but the pepper is suspended in a sticky gel instead of being contained in a liquid.
I have found this model on Amazon, it's used by the U.S. Military and law enforcement agents and has a range of 12 to 15 feet.
Pepper spray guns are a useful, non-lethal alternative to a real firearm. Compact and easy-to-use, they're designed to look like a real pistol. The main distinction between a conventional pepper spray can and a pepper spray gun is the force and range at which the pepper spray gun can fire.
In general, a pepper spray gun usually has double the range of a traditional can of pepper spray and often contains a larger amount of liquid so multiple attackers can be engaged. If you're looking for the intimidation of a handgun without the danger, a realistic pepper spray gun can be a great alternative.
Like pepper spray cans, pepper spray guns work by momentarily impairing vision, causing respiratory distress, heavy coughing, and a severe burning sensation to the skin, incapacitating your assailant for up to an hour. The temporary blindness and severe pain your attacker will experience should give you plenty of time to escape to safety.
One thing I like about pepper spray guns is that they are small enough to be easily concealed - no one has to know you've got one until you use it.
This pepper spray gun on Amazon is made by a leading company in the industry and has a powerful stream and sells for only $99 at the moment.
Medium range self-defense weapons are, without any doubt, my favorite tools, and they offer, in my opinion, the best defense. Most medium range weapons are about two feet long, so they allow you to keep your attacker at a safe distance while offering you a solid, reliable defense solution.
The tactical whip is my favorite self-defense weapon. It can be used in a fraction of a second and allow you to strike your attacker with amazing speed, from a safe distance. Your aggressor will never know what hit him until it's too late.
A tactical whip is a self-defense tool that can be used by civilians for personal protection against humans and animals alike. It's a simple and effective self-defense tool that anyone can use. It literally takes no strength or power to be devastating with it. If the blow lands, a petite woman (or even a kid) can do serious damage with this weapon.
Because of its flexible nature, a tactical whip hits with great velocity to a very small area on the target and can cause astonishing damage. Strikes to the head, ribs, hands, and fingers can result in broken bones while causing severe pain. I honestly believe that self-defense whips hit harder than sticks and batons.
If the confrontation gets up close and personal, the handle of most tactical whips can also be used as an effective impact weapon, much like a kubotan self-defense stick. This self-defense tool requires no special training or elaborate techniques to be used effectively. If you can swing your arm, you can unquestionably strike with a self-defense whip.
I would recommend this amazing whip, it's easily concealable, made of reinforced stainless steel, and it's only 40$ now on Amazon.
Another of my preferred self-defense tools is the monkey fist. The monkey fist is a rope with a weighted end. In terms of usage and functionality, it can be compared with the tactical whip.
There are two types of monkey fists, one with a ball bearing at the end (wrapped in the cord), and one without (threaded knot). Don't make the mistake of assuming that models without ball bearings are less effective, the threaded knot might look harmless, but it can be quite damaging to your attacker. It's a matter of physics, the more massive your monkey fist knot is, the more force you'll generate and the more threatening the weapon becomes.
What's great about monkey fists is that it looks like a simple, inoffensive tool, but it can be used with great speed and produces a crushing force that will break the person wishing to cause you harm.
Monkey fists come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and weights, and can be used as a rope in necessity by releasing the threaded knot at the end. You can easily store a monkey fist into your pockets, purses, or bags. Some models can be attached to a keychain, wallet, or zipper, enabling quick access in a dangerous situation.
Like the tactical whip, the monkey fist requires no power and very little skill to use. Just swing through your assailant and target sensitive areas like the jaw, the temple, the neck, or even the ribs.
When buying a monkey fist, choose one made of dual thread paracord as it makes the sturdiest and most reliable monkey fists. Also, make sure the rope itself is not too short.
I bought this monkey fist from Amazon - its made of paracord, it has the ideal length, and sells for only $15 now.
Stun gun batons are powerful self-defense weapons. Similar to stun guns, stun batons delivers a high voltage electric shock to your opponent, but allows you more distance from your attacker.
With a classic stun gun, you need to be in close proximity to your aggressor to deliver a hit. The stun baton gives you the same ability to momentarily disable an attacker, but you do it from a distance (most stun batons are about 18 inches long).
What makes stun batons great self-defense weapons is that not only they can be used to high voltage electric shock, they can also be used as a striking weapon, much like a club.
That's great, but what if an attacker is attempting to disarm you? Some stun batons are designed with a system that will deliver a shock should the attacker attempts to grab the baton. That's clever.
The main downside of stun batons is their size - they're quite big. They're clearly not a self-defense weapon that you can carry with you, so they can be stored in your car or at home in case of an emergency.
I like this stun baton from Amazon, it has an electrified shaft, so an attacker can't grab it from you.
Expandable batons are an effective and intimidating self-defense tool making them one of the best impact weapons available. The expandable baton is composed of a circular outer shaft containing 2 or 3 telescoping inner steel shafts that lock into each other when expanded.
Sometimes called retractable batons, telescopic batons, tactical batons, or security batons, these non-lethal batons are used by police forces, security guards, and military personnel around the globe.
One of the reasons why expandable batons are so great is because they give you some distance between you and your attacker. Distance is not everything, but if your not particularly skilled in self-defense, better keep your opponent farther than too closer. Expandable batons can be used for both offense and defense, to strike and to block.
When it's time to use it, just flick your wrist vigorously to expand it to its full size, and you're ready to go. To closing it, simply push the tip of the baton a hard floor. When closed, the expandable baton can be used as a kubotan stick and provides greater versatility in a wider range of conditions over fixed-length batons or clubs.
Another benefit of having an expandable baton is that it can be an excellent form of psychological intimidation. In many circumstances, the look and the sound it makes as it extends is enough to discourage a potential attacker.
Expandable batons are easy to carry and can fit perfectly in pockets, purses, or training bags. Still, personally, I think they can be a bit cumbersome and difficult for some people, especially small-framed women. I know my wife finds it considerably heavy and hard to maneuver. I'd go with a tactical whip instead.
This light aluminium 23 inches expandable baton is found on Amazon for less that $20.
A Nightstick (a.k.a. police baton) is a roughly cylindrical stick made of wood, rubber, plastic, or even metal. Also called batons, truncheons, billy sticks, billy clubs, or simply sticks. Nightsticks are used by correctional staff, law-enforcement officers, and security guards all over the world.
With a nightstick, self-defense baton doesn't get any more straightforward than this. The nightstick is a highly effective weapon when it comes to protecting yourself in hand-to-hand combat. With a little bit of power, anyone can do significant damage to an attacker with a baton. Even if the nightstick an easy to use self-defense tool, it requires minimal skills to use it effectively.
Even if technically it's a non-lethal weapon (like the extendable baton), the nightstick can cause damage to your aggressor that could be permanent, so you ought to be careful when using it. That being said, if someone is having bad intentions towards you, you have to fight back and defend yourself.
Nightsticks cannot be carried with you because they're quite big, so they make a great self-defense tool to keep in your car, RV, or at home.
I really like this 20 inches stainless steel nightstick on Amazon. It has good reviews and comes with a comfortable non-slip grip to prevent losing it during a self-defense situation.
Short-range self-defense weapons are useful when your attacker is close to you. Unfortunately, that's the last place you'll wanna be if you don't have the necessary skills to deal with your aggressor. Short-range tools are more into the physical fighting aspect of self-defense. At this range, you need to have the strength and quickness to be able to hit your attacker with your weapon of choice.
Self-defense keychains are legal, non-lethal, protective solutions that come in various models, shapes, and colors, and that increase your chance of survival and give you time to escape to safety. They are highly portable, discreet, and easily carried, making them useful personal safety gadgets.
Depending on the model, self-defense keychains can be used to strike or whip with your keys. Because of their small size, it's important to remember that they'll make you come in close contact with your attacker, which is not necessarily a good idea when untrained. As I said before, I highly recommend that you take some self-defense classes to increase your chances of survival.
What's convenient about self-defense keychains is that they're easy to carry and ready to use in case you're under attack. They can also be used as escape tools from vehicles and other utility circumstances.
This self-defense keychain on Amazon is made of titanium alloy is selling for $19.99 now.
The kubotan stick a six-inch-long stick self-defense weapon and is derived from the Japanese yawara stick. It was developed in the late 1960s by Japanese-America Karate master Takayuki Kubota. Kubotan can be made of different materials like wood or metal and come in a few various shapes.
Don't let its small size fool you, the kubotan can be a dangerous self-defense weapon if you learn to use effectively and according to the situation you might find yourself in.
Being a close quarter weapon, the kubotan stick can be used to defend against many types of attacks like strikes, chokes, and different grabs.
One of the greatest advantages of the kubotan over other types of weapons is that they are so simple and durable, and they never break or jam. Another advantage is that they are legal in most states.
For only $8 this kubotan found on Amazon is made of aircraft aluminum and has finger grooves for better control and grip.
The yawara stick is a Japanese weapon that dates back centuries. It's basically a wooden stick that protrudes about an inch from each side of the hand, and it's commonly believed that the yawara stick is related to the vajra, a religious object used by Buddhist monks.
The kubotan is pretty much a modernized version of the yawara stick and can have a devastating effect used properly. The yawara is used in some ancient Japanese martial arts disciplines for striking or applying pressure-sensitive body points.
Not only it adds significant damage potential to strikes or blocks but also protects your hand against injury. Its small point of impact results in a powerful concentration of power that is way more destructive than a fist.
It's small and easy to take with you virtually anywhere, and unlike guns, larger sticks, and knives, the yawara stick can be carried even when traveling to areas where weapons are not allowed, including on airplanes. It can easily fit in your pocket, purse, or bag.
This steel yawara stick is 35% off on Amazon right now, so I have ordered one myself!
Stun guns are compact and close-quarter self-defense tools that deliver electric shocks to your attacker. When an attacker gets hit by a charge, he will go through a few seconds of excruciating pain while their muscles will spasm.
To use a stun gun, you must be in direct contact with your aggressor since it does not shoot out any type of probe. It has two or more prongs attached to it with an electric arc between them that you can physically see. Its a device that's quite small, and it can easily fit in your pocket or purse.
Stun guns have evolved quite a bit over the past ten years or so as they became safer to use and more powerful. Modern stun guns are capable of generating enough voltage to momentarily disable an attacker, giving you time to escape. Don't forget that some people are more tolerant to pain than others, therefore the pain caused by the electric shock might not be enough to discourage them.
The downside with stun guns is that you need to be able to reach your attacker, which means you have to get up close. If they have a ranged weapon, or if they're a skilled fighter, you'll need to be able to get the jump on them for this to work. With short-range weapons, there is always a risk that the person who is trying to harm you may reach you before you can use your weapon.
I like this model on Amazon, is military-grade and has the perfect balance of size and power.
Tactical pens are heavy-duty, pen-shaped metal self-defense tools that can be used in personal defense situations. Tactical pens are meant to be used to poke or stab your assailant.
Unlike a regular pen, tactical pens have a very sharp ultra-resistant ballpoint (that you can actually write with) that can be used to strike an attacker. It also has a blunt end that can be used not only to hit but also to break through material like glass, for example.
Most tactical pens are made of machined steel that gives the pen extra weight that makes it valuable as a weapon. Some tactical flashlights also come with extra features such as LED flashlights and laser pointers.
One of the big advantages of tactical pens is that they don't appear to be a weapon - they can be hidden in plain sight.
Like other small weapons listed in this article, you have to be close to your opponent to use a tactical pen, and that's not particularly a good thing, especially if you have no self-defense training. However, if used properly, a tactical pen can save your life if you find yourself in a dangerous circumstance.
This Amazon bestseller tactical pen comes with six ink refills, has two pointy tips (striking & window breaking), and a handy pocket clip.
Self-defense rings look like normal rings except that they feature one or many over-sized pointed tips that extrude outward. I'll be honest right from the start, I find them pretty much ineffective.
I think that if someone has bad intentions towards you, in most cases, a self-defense ring won't make much of a difference in stopping him.
When you hold an extendable baton, pepper spray can or a tactical whip in your hands, it gives a sense of confidence that you just don't have with a self-defense ring. Of course, a tool is just a tool, but I would honestly go with a better option.
Light-based self-defense tools are commonly found in the form of tactical flashlights that can be used to momentarily blind and/or disorient a potential aggressor and give a few seconds to plan an escape or strike an attacker with the flashlight.
Don't let its simplicity fool you, tactical flashlights are very useful self-defense tools. A good quality tactical flashlight can concentrate and narrow their field of light into an incredibly bright beam - so bright that it can temporarily blind a person who's about to attack you or that is threatening you.
Blinding an attacker with a tactical flashlight should give you enough time to make an escape, which is the priority of all self-defense situations. Also, tactical flashlights are sturdy and durable so they can be used, much like the kubotan or the yawara stick, as a striking tool. Almost every good quality tactical flashlights are equipped with a DNA "catch crown", which can collect a DNA sample of an attacker.
What is great about tactical flashlights is that they work during the day as well as at night. I've actually tested some models outside during a sunny spring day with my friend Mario, and I was completely blinded by it.
For a tactical flashlight to be effective in self-defense situations, the light it produces needs to be bright enough to disorient or blind an aggressor. In my opinion, tactical flashlights with less than 800-1000 lumens (a measure of the total amount of visible light) just won't be strong enough to blind anyone. Some flashlights on the market have strobe functions that can be pretty useful and effective.
Tactical flashlights are not considered weapons, therefore they can be carried anywhere with any restrictions, even airplanes. A tactical flashlight measures between 12 and 16 cm in length and is quite easy to carry.
I have bought this flashlight on Amazon, it's very bright (1800 lumens) and has 300 meters beam distance.
Police flashlights have the same functionalities as tactical flashlights do except that they are much longer (average 40 to 50cm) and can be used as a striking baton. Police flashlights offer more options than a regular flashlight. Even if they are mainly used by Police forces and security agents, the police flashlight is available to the general public.
Like the tactical flashlight, the police flashlight can be used to temporarily blind an aggressor, giving you the time to take further action like running away. However, if you are not able to get away, then striking the attacker with the sturdy flashlight can be a great self-defense move.
Most police flashlights have lower settings so that they can be used as a 'normal' flashlight and a strobe setting. A strobe light is effective to disorient an aggressor, especially if he's aggressive, and you plan on striking him. Also, the strobe can be used to attract attention if you get lost in the outdoors, for example.
The brightness is critical when purchasing a police flashlight since it needs to be strong enough to blind a potential attacker. Some people claim than 300 lumens is the minimum suggested, but personally, I wouldn't go below 800 to 1000 lumens.
One only 'problem' with police flashlight is that they're quite big and won't fit into your purse or pocket. That's a kind of tool that perfect to have at home or in your car.
I like tactical police flashlight available at Amazon is this drop and water resistant and an ajustable beam.
Sound-based self-defense tools are gadgets that are meant to attract attention and supposedly distract your aggressor. My only concern with these tools is that the sound they produce probably won't discourage an aggressor, especially if he has bad intentions towards you. These tools should mainly be used to signal that you are in trouble, to call for help, but not as your primary self-defense weapon.
Safety Whistles are self-defense tools that emit sounds that are much louder and travel much farther than a human voice. If you are in a situation where you become lost, injured, or stranded, a safety whistle will be of great help. Also, if you're frightened, it is often hard to call for help, as you might be unable to speak. This is where a safety whistle comes handy.
The loud, piercing sound produced by a safety whistle should expectedly draw people's attention to you and hopefully dissuade aggressors from perpetrating their assault as they don't want to get caught.
Let me repeat that no sound-based tool should be expected to protect you against physical attacks. Safety whistles might be useful in a situation where you need to call for help but are in no way, tools for self-protection.
In terms of design, an interesting advantage that a safety whistle has is that, because it's not electronic, it has no batteries and works perfectly fine if it gets wet. Also, unlike other defense tools, a whistle can't be turned against you.
This Amazon top-rated whistle is considered by survival experts to be one of the loudest emergency survival whistles out there, and it's $12 only.
Safety horns (aka air horns) are pneumatic devices designed to create a piercing, high decibel sound intended for signaling purposes. They're used to alert people or personnel of unsafe and/or dangerous conditions, on construction sites, and noisy factories. Safety horns also used and during sporting events and outdoor activities like hiking, hunting, canoeing, and fishing or to scare off animals.
Some people adopted the safety horn as a non-lethal self-defense tool, and use its ear-piercing noise to get away from an attacker. As I said about the safety whistle, I'm not convinced it'll make an aggressor flea. It can, but I'd say it pretty much depends on the location of the attack, the nature aggressor, and the intention behind the aggression. I wouldn't rely too much on it as a primary self-defense tool.
Other options like the self-defense whip, for example, are more helpful to preserve your life than any sound-based tools can. That being said, I think safety horns can be useful for disrupting and potentially diverting a home invasion robbery because the last thing these people want is attention drawn to them.
Some models can emit up to 112-decibel ear-piercing alarm, so, in case of emergency, you can be heard from a kilometer around. On average, a safety horn should be good for around 40 or so two-second blasts. Good quality models will hold gas forever, whereas on cheaper ones, gas will slowly leak out of the can over a year or two, so choose a good one.
This safety horn has great reviews on Amazon and is made to deter dog attacks and call for help. It's really compact.
A personal alarm system is a small hand-held electronic device that you carry with you, and that emits, with the push of a button, a loud sound, similar to the sound of a siren or an alarm. Some models can emit blaring noise up to 130 decibels.
The personal alarm system is an excellent device to use to warn or alert other people during any kind of emergency, but not so much in terms of self-protection. Granted, the sound produced by the personal alarm can be surprising, distracting, and even momentarily disorienting, but I wouldn't rely on it to scare off an assailant.
I don't like the fact that with a sound-based device, you are relying on others for help. Like the safety whistle or the safety horn, a personal alarm system could also be a good option as a secondary self-defense item.
It comes in many different sizes, shapes and forms, and colors. Some models look like normal keychains, while some others are disguised as lipstick.
Last year, a friend of mine bought this personal alarm on Amazon that can emit a 130db blast and comes with a built-in manual whistle in case of battery failure.
Even if personal GPS trackers aren't self-defense tools per se, they can become handy in case of an emergency where you need to track a missing person. Personal GPS tracking devices can easily be attached to a person or vehicle and helps to keep your loved ones in the loop.
Personal GPS tracking systems (Global Positioning System) allows you to locate and determine the exact locations of persons wearing the device. Some devices even allow the user can track a person in real-time on Google Maps with time and places visited.
These tracking devices, once strapped on these individuals, will continuously send you signals about their location, allowing you to trace them easily. Some models even have two-way voice communicators and SOS alert buttons.
If you're a woman, a personal GPS tracking system can allow your loved ones to keep an eye on you if you're working late at night or in an unsafe neighborhood. These devices can be used to track your location if in case you find yourself in any kind of trouble.
It can help you follow your kids, especially primary schoolers, by tracking their route. Some models can send SMS/email when your kid leaves school territory or takes an irregular route when coming home. Personal GPS systems can also be used to monitor your teenager's driving behavior.
Also, GPS devices can also be used to track aging parents, people with dementia or Alzheimer's. With these devices, you can quickly track their position and get them back home.
There are dozens of types of personal GPS tracking devices, some even mimic everyday items like jewels, key holders, or watches. Most models are light, portable, and, therefore, easy to hide in jackets or backpacks. Some models are magnetic and can be easily hidden in your car.
I unquestionably recommend you to buy a personal GPS tracking system if you are a woman or for your kids.
I like this mini personal GPS tracker from Amazon, it has 2-way voice communication, real-time GPS tracking, and a distress alarm button.
Of course, in case of an emergency, you can use your phone to call the police, but there's a nice variety of safety apps available for both iPhone and Android that can potentially help if a situation goes bad. These safety apps are in no way a self-defense tool but can be helpful nonetheless with their wide array of functions and features.
At the press of a button or with a special key phrase, most safety apps can send an SOS signal (distress call via Twitter, Facebook, and text messaging) to people you previously selected and alert them that you need help. It also activates a loud siren, and everything that happens is recorded, stored, and sent to those selected persons.
You can also use these apps to share your location with selected people so that they'll be able to follow your movements on a map. Some models also have emergency video and audio that are streamed live to your designated people.
Some safety apps make it possible to prevent an attacker from shutting the app and the phone through a PIN password.
This category is not about self-defense tools but rather safety measures that can be used to secure your home. For me, that's also self-defense. The number one reason why a homeowner should consider installing a home security system or home security device is that they offer protection to family members from intruders.
The mere presence of an alarm system - indicated by a sticker in the windows - is enough in most cases to discourage burglars or criminals from trying to break in.
This website (www.thekaratelifestyle.com) and its owner (Martin Jutras) are not responsible for any physical harm or damage from the use or misuse of self-defense weapons purchased through our affiliate links. Please check local laws before ordering any self-defense weapons.
As a self-defense expert, it's my responsibility to tell you that it's not because you carry a self-defense weapon that you'll be able to defend yourself with it. A tool is only a tool, what matters is the person using it, YOU.
A self-defense tool doesn't increase your skills or your timing nor your ability to control yourself. The only this that such a tool can do is to amplify the damage that you when you manage to line things up just right.
When you are in the middle of an aggression, several things can wrong - you can drop your weapon, you are too nervous to use it effectively, you cannot get it fast enough, it's not working properly, or your attacker uses your weapon against you. The only way to avoid that is to get training.
So don't rely on a weapon, take hand-to-hand classes as well as non-lethal self-defense weapon classes. Your self-defense skills used in conjunction with a weapon will make you a VERY dangerous and effective person.
After reading this article, I hope that you understand that a self-defense tool is a tool and ONLY a tool.
Whatever the tools you carry, it's not gonna do the job for you. Ultimately, YOU are the reason why you end up safe from aggression, not that you hold in your hand. That being said, it is wise to choose your self-defense weapon wisely because it can be of great help if the situation arises.
As mentioned before, I would advise you to always check your state's (or country's) laws regarding self-defense weapons before you buy them. Some states have more restrictions than others.
Hi, my name is Martin Jutras. I've been studying and practicing Karate, practical self-defense and Zen Buddhism for more than 37 years.
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